Terminology of Iridology
Health Analysis
from the Iris
of the Eye
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Index of Iridology Terminology
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Index of Iridology Terminology
Acute Activity / Lightened Area is a term referring to an area where tissues are acutely inflamed.  Look for such signs as a lightened color that is very much brighter than the surrounding iris tissue color, or one or more iris fibers that are very white (in Blue or lighter Hazel eyes) or yellow (in the darker Brown eyes). 

ANW -“Autonomic Nerve Wreath” is one of the most important landmarks that an iridologist will analyze. Around the pupil, about a third of the way out toward the edge of the iris and a roughly circular structure,which seem to be raised a little from the level of the rest of the iris.  Fundamentally, the Wreath represents the autonomic nervous system, but a great deal more is shown by this structure.   The presence or absence, size and shape, height and width, placement with regard to the pupil and iris Rim, and other qualities of the Wreath offer a wealth of information about the person.

ANW Zone refers to the zones within the Wreath that includes the stomach and the intestinal zones.  Other term is “NutriZone” or “nutritional zone”.

Anxiety Syndrome is an Eyology term referring to a phenomenon seen in all three Genotypes and is characterized by Cramp Rings with Dark Radials.  It suggests psychosomatic nervous tension and a feeling of always being under pressure.

Area is an iridology topographic term referring to a specific organ, tissue, or body part location. For example, the lung area, the left kidney area, or the right leg area.  We can also use the term “area” to refer to various marking locations.  When capitalized, however, it is understood to mean a specific organ location.  The term “position” has also been used in this regard.

Asparagus Lacuna is a topostabile Endocrine system sign indicating a usually serious chronic degenerative condition, possibly a tumor.

Atonic wreath is wreath placement is relaxed toward the iris rim (periphery), showing tendency to constipation from lack of bowel tone.

Autonomic nerve wreath (ANW) - (see ANW).
Balanced Wreath means the Wreath is rightly placed about 1/3rd of the way out from the pupil.  This describes an appropriately sized nutritional zone (Zones 1 and 2).  It shows a positive influence on bowel behavior, and is a sign of a general vitality that is well above average. 

Beak Lacuna - (also “Straight Beak Lacuna” and “Curved Beak Lacuna”) is a topostabile bird-beak-like Lacuna occurring at the Wreath.  The “beak” aspect increases the possibility of pathology, especially nerve supply problems, so watch for Wreath weakening or breaks where the sign occurs.  Wreath penetration is more suggestive of malignancy (real or potential), whereas non-penetration suggests possible benign tumor formation. 

Blue Genotype - (also “lymphatic constitution”) is a term referring to irises within the blue genetic color range.  Identification: The Blue-type iris includes all the non-brown-pigmented eyes, and thus the various “clear” blues, grays and greens, as well as the rare purples (like Elizabeth Taylor’s eyes).  The iris fibers are clearly visible, and there is no identifying Brown-type general pigmentation over substantial portions of the iris-Heterochromias notwithstanding.  Tendencies: There is a genetic predisposition to lymphatic over-sensitivity, reactivity, or overactivity, with resulting mucus membrane discharge in the linings of the bladder, genitals, Nutritive, and Respiratory systems.  There is a special sensitivity to dairy products, which are among the more obvious causes of mucus discharge and congestion.  Certain other general tendencies can be listed that tend to occur more in Blue-eyed persons than in those with Brown or Hazel eyes, including problems with generative function, some sugar & protein metabolic processes, joint and muscle pains, certain skin conditions, and allergies.  

Brain Flares is a concept developed by David Pesek, PhD., involving the application of emotional qualities to various brain areasBrown Genotype is a term referring to irises within the brown genetic color range.  Identification: a carpet of brown pigment over the entire iris, with iris fibers not visible or barely visible.  Tendencies: inherited tendency to blood / serum disturbances and some heart and kidney diseases.  White blood cells are more active and less effective against certain parasites due to a lesser ability of the body to hold trace minerals.  Occasional problems may occur with carbohydrate metabolism, liver / gall bladder, and Structural and Nutritive systems. 
Central Heterochromia - is a mostly genetically determined and mostly yellowish or brownish discoloration of the NutriZone.  This term describes an Eyology Syndrome.  It shows a tendency to constipation, digestive and eliminative disturbances, and underactive stomach secretions. 

Cholesterol Ring - (also Cholesterosis Ring or Sodium Ring) is signed by a pale-to-thick whitish band of film partially or wholly encircling the periphery of the iris, mainly seen in zones 6-7, but possibly extending into zone 5.  Technically, this is not an iris sign, but actually a sclera sign since it is within the cornea (the cornea being a transparent extension or aspect of the sclera).  However, its historical use allows it to be claimed by Iridology.  It indicates a tendency to liver disorders involving the metabolism of calcium &/or sodium &/or cholesterol.  Also possible are circulatory disturbances, and vascular, liver and kidney sclerosis.  This sign describes the Cholesterosis Syndrome. 

Cigar Lacuna - (see “Lance Lacuna”). 

Ciliary Edge - (see “Rim”) is another term for the iris Rim, the iris periphery, or iris/sclera border, or outer-most extension of the iris, where it meets the sclera.  The newer term is simply “Rim”. 

Ciliary Zone - the second Major Zone comprised of the Zones outside the Wreath.  These are Zones 3-7, inclusive. 

Circular Zone(s) - (see “Zones”). 

Closed Lacuna - Commonly shows tendency to organ insufficiency.  A closed lacuna with a thin white border indicates that a healing process is occurring or has taken place.

Collarette - (see “ANW”).

Colors in the irises - may be inherited, developed, or both.  They may be seen as (1) solid colors over the whole iris (Genotype, or inherited), and Phenotype, or inherited and developed, (2) as areas of color (e.g., the Heterochromias, sectoral, central, and complete), and (3) as swaths, patches and spots (the more specific Pigments).  The range of possible colors is wide, both in terms of Genotype colorations and in the various Pigment area colorations (see Pigments).

Complete Heterochromia - is a sign encompassing the entire Nutritional Zone and giving it an utterly different color (more often one of the darker brown shades, especially reddish brown) than that of the Ciliary Zone (the Ciliary Zone is where the Genotype color is determined).  It is possible to view in all but the darker brown eyes.  Inherited or developed, it refers to potential dysbiosis, anything from mild to pre-neoplastic.  The redder the color the more potentially negative the condition

Compound Map Topography - refers to Iridology topography that uses more than one (“compound”) map to show tissue and organ areas. 

Constitution -As traditionally used in medicine and in the common language, the term “constitution” refers to the sum total of both inherited (or genetic) qualities and the various developed conditions of bodily being-in Iridology, as seen in the irises.

Constricted Wreath - refers to the Wreath being constricted toward the pupil.  It is a sign of possible constipation, slow / underactive peristalsis, sluggish bowel movement, gastrointestinal infections, malabsorption syndrome, &/or functional bowel disorders, including irritable bowel, gas, and bloating.
Copper Dysfunction - a generally pale grey-gold-greenish and somewhat metallic ring resembling the Cholesterol Ring, more or less encircling the outer Zones (5-7).  It is referred to medically as the “Kayser-Fleischer rings”, and represents what has medically been called the “Wilson’s Syndrome”, or “Wilson’s Disease”.  An inherited copper toxicosis disease generally occurring before age 30 that is medically considered fatal without treatment.  Symptoms include unexplained hepatic, neurologic, or psychiatric disease, or persistent asymptomatic unexplained transaminasemia.  Discovery tests need to be run on hepatic copper metabolism.  If abnormal amounts of liver-mediated copper get into the brain (via the bloodstream) there can be disastrous results, signed by tremor, dystonia, dysarthria, dysphagia, drooling, incoordination, grossly inappropriate behavior, or even schizophrenic or manic-depressive behavior.
Corkscrew Radial - is a developed corkscrew-shaped White Radial that describes a circumstance in which pain has at some time occurred, is current, or will soon be suffered, in the local area where found. 
Cotton Wool Balls - (see “Tofi”). 
Cramp Rings - (also “nerve rings”, and “contraction furrows”) refers to a sign of concentric ring-like structures occurring in any Zone or Zones that describe circulatory disturbances with possible cramping wherever breaks in rings occur.
Crypt - A smallish (but not as small as a DM), topostabile, light-to-dark (but NOT black inside), rather sharply outlined rhomboid or otherwise diamond-shaped marking indicating an actual or potential ulcerative condition.  Malignancy is a possibility when accompanied by a brown or black pigment.  With a white (Perifocal) border, the condition is acutely active.  Important: pathology thus varies and depends also on Crypt location. 

Curved-Beak Lacuna - is a topostabile sign of a Lacuna most often found at the Wreath, and shaped like the curved beak of certain birds.  It indicates inherent tendency to nerve supply problems.  Wreath penetration indicates active (although benign) neoplasm

Darkening - is a term referring to a darkened area of the iris.  It suggests that the corresponding body tissue is in a state of chronic inflammation, with increased toxicity, a higher pathology index, and parasites that are more difficult to deal with (than if the tissue were lighter). 

Dark Radials - (also “sun radials”, “radial furrows”, “spastic furrows”, “radii solaris”) is a term referring to ray-like generally dark groove markings of various lengths and depths radiating from the Pupil Border, Z1, Z2, or the Wreath, outward toward the iris Rim.  They indicate a tendency to nerve weakness or lowered nerve energy in whatever areas they penetrate and to the degree of their depth.  This sign also brings a tendency for the development of certain types of bacteria and fungi that feed upon nerve tissue.  Dark Radials are of two basic types: (1) the short type, within or mostly within the Nutritive Zone, and (2) the longer rays that may originate anywhere from the Pupil Border to the Wreath but then radiating outward into the Ciliary Zone.  NutriZone Rays indicate problems with that system’s nerves.  Dark Radials tend to occur frequently more in brain areas because it is the nerve center of the body.  Rays penetrating specific brain areas will, in varying degrees, affect mental, emotional, or physical functions accordingly. 

Defect Marking - abbreviated as “DM”, refers to any of three smallish very dark markings showing areas of genetic defect (older terms include “substance defect”, “defect sign”).  DM’s may or may not have manifest as tissue damage or chronicity, but they certainly have a tendency in this direction.  The area DM’s represent are usually the most vulnerable in the body.  They may be (1) rhomboid or diamond-shaped (typically), (2) point or spot-shaped, or (3) lance or spearpoint-shaped (tiny, thin, elongated diamond), and always very dark, black, or nearly black.  They may be seen singly, or in a series collected together, somewhat net-like, within a usually diamond-shaped configuration most often near the Wreath or otherwise in the NutriZone.  With DM’s, the disease potential is among the highest of all iris signs.  To help differentiate between Crypts and DM’s (e.g., in the case of a question of size), note that DM’s are usually smaller and always blackish, whereas Crypts (besides being always only diamond shaped) are not as dark inside.

Density - is a term that refers to genetic disease resistance, or overall health resilience, shown essentially by relative iris fiber closeness.  It is structural integrity, showing inherited bodily ability to manage negative influences.  It is the capacity of the body to take all kinds of abuse and stress, including dietary toxins, metabolic wastes, environmental toxics, negative-reactive emotions, privations and deprivations, weather changes and dynamics, accidents and other traumas, and so on.

Depigmentation - refers to a patch of iris fibers missing its color and appearing starkly bleached out, showing significantly lowered functional ability wherever seen.   

Detached Wreath - is said to refer to (1) a problem with sugar metabolism, and (2) local lowered bowel function from irritation by drugs or chemicals, usually pharmaceuticals, but possibly from common food processing.  Nerve supply is diminished or otherwise less effective in the local area.  (Look for sclera signs to verify and amplify meaning.) 

Developed Markings (and both inherited and developed) - include Pigment Spots, Radials, Threads, Cramp Rings, Tofi, Metallics, Wedges, Nerve Netting, Transversals, Cholesterosis Ring, Uric Acid Plates, and Combo Markings. 

Diagnosis / Iris Diagnosis - is a medical term that has been used inappropriately by Iridologists.  This is a wrong use for many reasons, including the fact that in Iridology it is often possible to confuse and interchange the location of organs (e.g., gallbladder, pylorus, and pancreas head).  Such ambiguity alone should obviate Iridology as a means of primary diagnosis.  The general term “diagnosis”, as used in medicine, means determining the nature of a disease, or distinguishing one disease from another.  In certain areas of the world, it is illegal to use Iridology to thus “diagnose” disease.  A problem has developed when and where those who are not legally permitted to thus “diagnose”, do so, and are challenged.  It is considered more prudent (if not safer) to use Iridology (especially when it is used alone) to “evaluate” health conditions.  This is done by avoiding reference to specific “legal” disease names (e.g., “diabetes”, “cancer”, “arthritis”, etc.), instead using generic terms (“sugar metabolism dysfunction”, “neoplasm”, “metabolic disease”, etc.).  Moreover, this approach tends not only to satisfy legal requirements, but is also scientifically more accurate.  For even greater accuracy in health evaluation, always use differential diagnostic methods-i.e., other means of evaluation. 

Discreet Markings - are single, specific iris markings that may be inherited, developed, or both.  Examples include such as Lacunas, DM’s, Crypts, Pigment Spots, and Transversals. 

Double Lacuna - (see “Roof Tile Lacuna”) 

Doubled Wreath - is a term referring to the local doubling of the Wreath.  When doubled in one or more places, extra sensitivity and irritability is represented in those places. 
Eggshell Sign / Syndrome- A sign seen at 3:00 and 9:00 at the Rim and moving into the sclera, denoting problems with the Eliminative function and associated organs, especially kidneys and rectum, but possibly involving other organs of this system.  Seen mostly in older age. 

EyeScan - A term referring to a USA-based company developing Eyology imaging systems. 

Eyology - is a term referring to any and all studies of the eyes as means of evaluating the health, pathology, and all other qualities of human life.  This definition would include Iridology and its various branches (the physical, mental, personality, psycho-emotional, etheric, and spiritual dimensions), Sclerology, and any other such science. 
Febrile Sign / Syndrome - shows as a thick whitish covering in the Ciliary Zone.  It is harder to see in certain Hazel eyes and may be impossible to see in the darker eyes.  It shows increased tendency to develop fevers to aid the immune system in its work. 

First Major Zone - is the NutriZone, comprised of the first two Minor Zones: Zone 1 (Stomach), and Zone 2 (Bowel).
Genotype - is a term referring to the genetic or inherent qualities of the body as seen in the irises.  Somewhat arbitrarily, we may distinguish three basic Genotypes or iris color types: Brown, Blue, and Hazel.  See also: “Blue Genotype”, “Brown Genotype”, and “Hazel Genotype”.  (Former term: “Constitution”.)

Glandular Zone - is a reference to Zone Three (Z3), where most of the Endocrine glands of the body-and, indeed, most iris signs-are represented.
Half Lacuna - is a topostabile marking showing an area of inherited weakness but with easier nutrient delivery than the Closed Lacuna.  A darker interior shading indicates lowered function and reactive ability.

Hard Marker(s) - is a summary term for such iris markers as Lacunas, Crypts, DM’s, and Rarefaction.  Most Hard Markers (Lacunas, Crypts, DMs, e.g.) are inherited. 

Hazel Genotype - is a term referring to irises within the Hazel genetic color range.  Identification: wide color range, with varying amounts of brownish or otherwise opaque pigmentation, especially seen at 11:00-1:00Z3 of each iris.  Most iris fibers are clearly visible.  Tendencies: various liver, gallbladder, portal, and biliary tract disorders, certain digestive problems and kidney disturbances.  Hazel-eyed persons tend also to have heightened sensitivity to chemicals and superheated fats and oils.  (Formerly: “Mixed-Biliary constitution”.)

Heart-Bowel Syndrome - appears as markings in the heart and Defect Signs in the bowel area.  This shows inherited tendency to weakness in the lower bowel with possible prolapsus, plus heart-caused circulatory disturbance. 

Heart-Kidney Syndrome - is shown by inherent markings in the heart and kidney areas.  Blood will be oxygen deficient, with shortness of breath and edema.  Renal signs may only appear in the sclera. 

Hepatoprophic - (or “hepatotropic”) means involving the liver or otherwise liver function. 

Heterochromia - is a term referring to any of three so-called “Heterochromias”: the Complete H., the Central H., and the Sectoral H.  They can provide both inherited and developed data. Look under these three headings for information specific to each type. 

Holistic Iridology - A term used to describe a whole or holistic method of teaching and practicing Iridology developed by David Pesek, PhD, USA.

Honeycomb - A topostabile marking indicating organ weakness from tissue hardening, disturbed nutrition, and other metabolic difficulties.  Seen in glandular, respiratory, brain, and other areas.  Expect parasites, poor circulation, lowered vitality, and local tissue atrophy. 

Humoral Zone - (See “Zone”).  This term “Humoral” is another, older reference to Zone 3, or Z3, where most Physical Iridology Hard Markers are found. 

Hydrogenoid - (see “Tofi”).

HyperAcid / HyperAcid Syndrome - is a term referring to a series of whitish-gray plates (called “Uric Acid Plates”), usually seen in the mid-Ciliary Zone, and more easily seen in lighter-colored eyes.  The sign indicates a tendency to painful acid accumulations in joints with raised blood uric acid levels.  This Syndrome was formerly called “Over-Acid”, later to be changed by German Iridologists to “HyperAcid”. 
IIPA - Acronym for the International Iridology Practitioners Association, headquartered in the USA.

Inherited Markings - include genetic general iris color (Genotype), Lacunas, Honeycombs, Crypts, and Defect Markings (DM’s).

Integrated Iridology - A term referring to a method and means of practice coined and taught by Toni Miller, Australia. 

Intermittent Wreath - refers to a Wreath that is broken in places, one that demonstrates an irregular pattern of alternating bowel over-activity and underactivity.  

Intestinal Zone - (see “NutriZone”).

Introflection - A term used especially by Russian Iridologists referring to the inward direction of the Wreath toward the pupil, as in clinical cases of sugar metabolism dysfunction where the Wreath is seen to move inward in the lower aspect of the iris(s). 

Irides - is an early term referring to the irises. 

Iridological - is a term meaning, “having to do with Iridology”. 

Iridology - (irid = irises; -ology = study of) is a term referring to the art, science, and study of the markings and colorings in the irises of the eyes as means of understanding health and disease (or pathology) conditions.  While the science, in modern times, began with a focus on the physical body and its topography, later researchers have included the more recent discoveries of emotional, mental, psychic, and other qualities.  For purposes of clarity and specificity, the physical aspects have been referred to as Iris-1, the personality qualities as Iris-2, the etheric as Iris-3, the psycho-emotional as Iris-4, the mental-psychic as Iris-5, the causal (root of the ego, or locus of the sense of separate self, or root of attention) as Iris-6, and the spiritual as Iris-7.  The general term “Iridology” would then encompass all of these.  Historically, Iridology seems to have appeared, disappeared, and then reappeared in various places and times.  It may have been known in ancient Egypt.  Most recently, it was “discovered” in the early 1800’s by Ignatz von Peczely of Hungary.  

Iridoscopy - (see “Iridology”) is another (archaic) name for Iridology.  Technically, it means “the study of the irises under magnification”. 

Iris - is a ring of muscle, innervated by sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves, that changes size of pupil to regulate amount of light entering the eye.

Iris Grid - is an Iridology topographical term.  It is used to describe the hypothetical or theoretical placing of a grid onto a (typically) flat surface to represent, in circular or otherwise iris-shaped fashion, the locations of body organs and tissues as represented in the irises.  Such a grid is designed to facilitate the location of the various tissues, organs, and systems of the body.   Grids of various maps have been used as transparencies with photos and placed directly on computer screens.  They have also been integrated into software, where they may be displayed as overlays onto iris and sclera images.

Iron Sign - (also “ferrum chromatosis”) is a term referring to patches of tiny fine-grain brownish dots, seen mostly in Zone 3, especially in Hazel eyes.  They can also be seen in Blue eyes, and in the lighter shades of Brown eyes, as well.  They indicate liver susceptibility and sensitivity to touch, typically with enervation and even (possibly) psycho-emotional disinclination to work.

Irritation Fiber(s) - (see “White Radial”). 

Irritation Radial(s) - (see “White Radial”).
Jagged Wreath - or star-shaped Wreath suggests a tendency to loose stools under stress. 
Major Zones - refers to the two principle Zones of topography in the irises, (1) the NutriZone, which include minor Zones 1 and 2, and (2) the Ciliary Zone, which include minor Zones 3-6 or 7 (see “Zones”).

Marker(s) - is a term in Iridology referring to markings in the irises that describe various qualities of health, personality, etc., depending on the marker and which branch of Iridology is being considered.  In Iris-1 (Physical Iridology), the most common markers are Lacunas, Crypts, and DM’s (see description of these terms). 

Medial - is an anatomy reference that we use in Iridology to refer to those parts of the iris topography that are nasalward.  When looking at an image of a left (L) iris, the medial portion is that from six to twelve o’clock.  When observing a right (R) iris, the medial portion is from twelve to six o’clock. 

Medusa Lacuna - is a term referring to an Open Lacuna form, a pre-malignancy sign illustrating a familial history of severe disturbance, usually found in lung, bronchus, and kidney areas.

Mesenchyme Syndrome - (also “connective tissue weakness”) appears as a variously loose weave of iris fibers.  The Wreath is often difficult to distinguish, and there may be multiple Lacunas, some or all of which include more than one organ area.  It refers to a genetic tendency to mesenchyme weakness, and therefore a weakness tendency in the structures and tissues produced by the mesenchyme.  Structural system and connective tissue vulnerability in the form of spinal misalignments, bone fractures sprains, and sagging internal organs. 

Minor Zones - is a term referring to the six or seven topographical Zones or concentric divisions of the iris that help define and locate the various organs and systems as projected, map-like, upon the surface of the irises.  These include (1) the NutriZone, (2) the Bowel Zone, (3) the Vascular / Endocrine Zone, (4) the Muscular Zone, (5) the Structural Zone, and (6) to (7), the Lymphatic / Skin / Peripheral Nervous system Zone (see “Zones”). 

Mucus Membrane Zone - (see “Pupil Border”). 
Neoplasm Syndrome - shows a genetic pre-disposition to abnormal tissue growth or malignancy.  Of course, it is also possible to also develop this syndrome.  Signs include a grayish general tone (in lighter eyes), darkened Rim, Wreath area Lacunas, discolored Zone 3, tarry black or very dark brown Ciliary Zone pigment spots, immune compromise signs in the sclera, a darkened Nutritive Zone, multiple Tofi, and Curved-beak Lacunas in the Wreath.  The irises show any 4 of these: dark, cloudy NutriZone, discolored / dark gray Z3, spleen Transversal, peripheral Tofi, Scurf Rim, Wreath area Beak Lacunas, dark brown/black Ciliary Zone Pigments.  Also, the brown/black Z4-5 Dark Dots, pigment spots of any color close to DM's, Crypts, or Lacunas, and one or both Diamond PBD.  In the sclera, look for the presence of any one or more of 15 known N markers, plus symptoms.  The system is the Metabolic.  The origin is both inherited and developed.  The signs indicate neoplasm environments.  Either existing pre-neoplastic circumstance or current active neoplasm.  Lesion(s) may be benign or malignant.  Malignancy involves cells that are out of control, grow without regulation, lack differentiation, and can invade local tissues and metastasize.  The normal course of malignant neoplasm is fatal.  

Nerve Netting - (also “neuronal netting”) is a psycho-neuro sign, a web-like effect of tiny Transversal lines below surface layers.  They are usually white (although they may be other colors), and most often found in respiratory areas or reside in Open Lacunas-although they may entirely encircle the iris in Zones 4-6.  Visible only in lighter shade eyes, they describe genetic-familial predisposition to nervous conditions, including chronic depression, sadness, melancholy, or otherwise negative-reactive emotions.  The emotional darkness-with attendant weakness-will be associated with (and affect) either the local areas or the entire Nervous system, according to where seen.  Also, look for Local Darkness and Area Pigment of orangish-yellow color in brain areas as confirmation of this sign.

Nerve Wreath - (see “Wreath”).  

Netting - (also “neuronal netting” or “nerve netting”) is tiny, web-like effect below surface layers often in respiratory area Open Lacunas.  Look for sadness, negative-reactive emotions associated with local areas, plus attendant weakness.

Neurogenic Syndrome - seen in Blue and Hazel eyes, shows close-knit fibers in all Zones, with Cramp Rings.  It shows robust physical integrity but nervous system vulnerability to mental stresses and psycho-emotional states.

Neuronal Netting - (see “Nerve Netting”). 

Nutritional Zone - (see “NutriZone”). 

NutriZone - (also “nutrition zone”, “nutritional zone”, “zone of nourishment”, “ANW zone”, “wreath zone”, “Ruff zone”, and “Pupillary zone”) is a term referring to the First Major Zone in Iridology topography.  This Zone includes the first two Minor Zones: (1) the Stomach Zone (or Z1), and (2) the Bowel Zone (or Z2). 

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We hope this index of terminology would be useful to iridologists and Iridology students in their study in this facinating subject.
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