Terminology of Iridology
Health Analysis
from the Iris
of the Eye
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Index of Iridology Terminology
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Index of Iridology Terminology
Open Lacuna - this term is a common indication is of an even more vulnerable condition than with the Closed Lacunas.  There can be possible sudden organ failure in the area where the sign is seen.  (Note: a lot depends on nearby or surrounding signs; e.g., thick white border, diffuse white clouds, Pigment Spots, Transversals, Honeycombs, etc.). Common indication is of possible sudden organ failure in area where sign is seen.  (Note: a lot depends on nearby or surrounding signs; e.g., thick white border, diffuse white clouds, etc.).

Origin Point (OP) - is a term referring to the specific point on a topographical map grid that shows the precise location where pathology for that Part (body part, organ, or tissue) originates and where signs for such pathology are most likely to be found.  See the Universal Iridology Grid 

Over-Acid Stomach - the stomach tends to produce excessive amounts of acids, often in reaction to emotional, mental or otherwise stress environments and conditions. 

OverAcid Syndrome - is a mild-to-moderate whitish overlay covering much of the Ciliary Zone.  Darker eyes make this sign more difficult to see.  It shows increased risk of “arthritic”-type pain in joints and spine from excessive dairy, substance abuse, and rich foods generally. 
Pancreatic Syndrome - appears as Honeycombs, Lacunas, Crypts, or DM’s in the pancreas and pulmonary / respiratory areas, especially in Zone 3.  It shows a tendency to weakness in the pancreas with respiratory affection influenced by the pancreas.

Part -is a term used in Iridology topography referring to a body part, organ, or tissue (e.g., leg, stomach, nerves) as located on and Iridology grid. 

Partially Contracted Wreath - is a term referring to a local area of the Wreath pushed toward the Pupil while the rest of the Wreath is generally balanced.  It shows pressure from an organ or body area within the Ciliary Zone (e.g., tumor, displaced organ, swelling, etc.).

Partially Dilated Wreath - is a term referring to a circumstance where a significant part of the Wreath is pushed toward the iris Rim with the rest of the Wreath generally balanced.  It shows lack of bowel tone or flabbiness in the local bowel area when the distention is rounded, or colicky pains when it is jagged.  Organs or areas adjacent to distensions can be negatively affected via reflex pressure. 

PBD - is an abbreviation for Pupil Border Dynamics, the study of the various shapes and markings seen at the border between the iris and the pupil. 

Peppercorn / Peppercorn Pigments - (see “Iron Syndrome”). 

Perifocal - is a term meaning around or surrounding a focus, like a focus of infection.  In Iridology, it refers to a bright marking on or surrounding a Lacuna, Crypt, or otherwise specific area.  The term often refers to variously thin, thick, or whole patches of very white lines around a specific area, but could involve White Radials or Transversals, possibly suggesting a developing malignant process-in any case with acute inflammation.  Therefore, the situation should be watched closely.

Phenotype - is another name for “constitution”, meaning what people have done with their lives (or what has developed in pathological terms) in addition to what they have inherited.  It is the total makeup of a person at any given time in his/her life.  Phenotypes are as numerous as people (there is one for each person), and aspects of them are constantly changing.  Def. The entire physical, biochemical, and physiological makeup of an individual as determined both genetically and environmentally, as opposed to genotype.

PIA (see “Principal Influence Area”)

Pigments - are various arrangements of color from spot-like to patches to swaths to amorphous areas, including the Heterochromias.  Consider them individually as Discreet Markings (see “Colors”, “Pigments”).  They are discreet arrangements of color in the irises-as opposed to the general coloration of the iris (es) that define Genotype.  These consist of various configurations classified according to size, shape, structure, location, number, proximity, and border, as well as color.  Size ranges from tiny spots to huge areas.  Shape ranges from spot-like to patches to swaths to amorphous areas, including the Heterochromias.  Structure may be nearly transparent, pale, thick, raised above the surface, granulated, and so on.  Location (topographically) can determine which area(s) is/are being affected.  Number refers to possibilities of which or how many organs or systems are involved (is it solitary or multiple, and does more than one color occur in the same iris).  Proximity refers to other markings close by that influence meaning and significance.  Border is another determination of influence and significance.  Color helps us determine which organs are involved, and the pathology tendency.  Some observers have claimed that the thicker or darker the pigment the more chronic the condition, or the brighter the pigment the more acute the condition.  We have not found these claims to be so.  Liver, kidney, and pancreas Pigments are most often found in the Ciliary Zone.  Urinary system signs, most often yellows, are usually seen as large colored areas close to the Wreath.  (Note: the different way each of us has in differentiating color should be taken into account.)  Pigments should be considered individually as discreet markings (see “Colors”).  Patch coloring occurs mostly in and around Zones 3 and 4.  Pigment spots indicate areas of developed pathology, may be variously shaped but are usually roundish, and appear only if an organ or local tissue area is affected.  Pigment spots found within Lacunas or adjacent to Crypts or DM’s emphasize the severity and chronicity of the organ pathology (proximity).  Pigmentation within the NutriZone is more important than that in the Ciliary Zone (location).   
Yellow (pale, straw colored) = excretion problems and general kidney weakness
Yellow (rich, the more opaque shades) = kidney stones
Yellow = various kidney problems (filtering, fluid balance, hydration, etc.)
Gold grains = Vitamin A synthesis problem
Ochre = spleen dysfunction
Orange = pancreas problem (sugar metabolism dysfunction causing fermentation)
Salmon-color = fat processing dysfunction at level of bowel; stomach ulcers or tumors, depending on Z1 location.
Brown (light to medium) = liver problems (e.g., fat metabolism dysfunction) and / or gallbladder obstruction
Brown (medium) = liver and pancreas dysfunction, liver-mediated hormonal disturbance
Brown (reddish) = liver-mediated carbohydrate metabolism dysfunction
Brown (dark) = (same as Near-Black)
Near-Black = tendency to degeneration, tissue oxygen deficiency, significant hormone dysfunction, and malignancy

PolyGlandular Syndrome - appears as a daisy-like pattern of lacunas around the Wreath in Zone 3.  It shows tendency to Endocrine system problems and bowel irregularity. 

Polypose Lacuna - A topostabile NutriZone marking indicating intestinal polyps-if it is impinging on the Wreath.

Position - (see “Area”). 

Pressure Radial - (see “White Radial”).

Principal Influence Area (PIA) - is a topographical term referring to the area of principal influence of an organ, as opposed to the specific (and necessarily smaller) essential area of location of an organ on the hypothetical Iris Grid.  It is the space or extended location (beyond the known Area) where markings (representing the pathology of Parts) that are actually possible to be seen in the irises can and will be found.  PIA’s describe the full possible range of location of markings.  Markings within the PIA represent real or potential pathology in the Part, or pathology that otherwise directly involves the Part.

Pupil Border - (also “PB”, or “mucus membrane zone”) refers to the typically rather thin area of the iris adjacent to and immediately surrounding the pupil.  This area is highly informative regarding not only the stomach and its activity, but also the spinal nerves, their related body parts, and associated emotions.  Some 66 different markings are displayed at this location, as well as sectoral flattening of itself, variously angled ellipses, and odd shapes.   .

Pupillary / Pupillary Zone - (see “NutriZone”). 

Pupil Shadow - is a variously dark or darkened “halo” around the Pupil Border (or constituting the Pupil Border).  When dark brown, it describes gastric mucosal lining atrophy with accompanying significantly reduced digestive capacity.  Sub-acid digestive conditions will prevail, and digestive aides may be needed.

Thickened, Ropy, Raised Wreath - shows overactivity of the bowel.

Thin, Wispy or Delicate Wreath - shows a bowel that is overly sensitive and irritable. 

Threads - (also “silver threads”) are single, very thin, most often tangential, usually curved silvery-white lines usually seen within a lacuna, but also separately, especially in Zones 1 and 2-although they may be seen in any Zone.  They indicate local spasm and pain from inflammation.  Note that these are tiny lines, difficult to see without magnification.  Differentiate them from White Radials, which are much thicker.

Time Risk - is a term referring to an aspect of Iridology science that involves the calculation of emotionally charged emotional events of life as these may be determined and found on the iris Wreath.
Tofi / Tofi Syndrome - (also called “hydrogenoid”, “cotton wool balls”, “white flakes”, “lymph perls”, and “lymphatic rosary”) appears as a series of whitish or pale yellowish dots or patches in Blue, Hazel and the lighter Brown eyes in or near Zone 6.  It shows sodium urate or other endogenous waste deposition, possibly allergy, and increased sensitivity to food and environmental chemicals. 

Topography - refers to the irises and/or the sclera as map(s) to the body.  It refers to the location of various organs, tissues, and systems.  Topography provides a means by which we can locate the various body parts and qualities.  Topography terms include PIA, Areas, OP’s, Pupil Border, Wreath, Rim, Regions, Sectors, Zones, and, in some cases, hours, and minutes. 

Topolabile - means the marking in question may or may not refer to pathology (or potential pathology) in the specific location where found.  (“Topo” = topography, or map location; “labile” = moving from point to point, unstable.)  Thus, a topolabile marking means that the pathology (or potential pathology) it represents could be anywhere.

Topostabile - means that the marking in question refers to pathology (or potential pathology) right where it (the marking) is seen. 

Torpedo Lacuna - (see “Lance Lacuna”). 

Transversal - is a term referring to lines lying tangential to the normal iris fiber pattern.  Normally, iris fibers radiate out from an imaginary or hypothetical point at the center of the pupil, whereas Transversals seem to originate at or somewhere near the iris Rim and move inward-at an angle.  Thus, Transversals most often involve Zones 7, 6, & 5-Integument, Nervous, Lymphatic, Structural, and Vascular tissue.  A Transversal may consist of a single fiber or multiple fibers.  Although they have a single area focus, they may arc, branch, and fork to show influence in other locations.  They can be variously sized, thin or thick, but are more usually curved and thickened and of a length that communicates between two or three Zones.  Transversals are topostabile signs of genetic predisposition to congestion (and thus tendency to degenerative process) in structural areas (organs, body parts).  Possible developments include malignancies, organ displacements, cysts, pain, adhesions, structural problems, tumor, and other pathological conditions. 
Several colors are possible with Transversals (most often white, then red), each with its special meaning.  Accompanied by Crypts, Lacunas, or DM’s, they indicate some degree of malignancy.  With pigments and Red Radials nearby, tumors tend to form.  Mostly structural topostabile curved thickened lines lying tangential to the normal iris fiber pattern.  They show tendency to degenerative process: malignancies, organ displacements, cysts, pain, adhesions, structural problems, tumor, and other abnormal conditions.  Several colors are possible, each with its special meaning.  Accompanied by Crypts, Lacunas, or Defect Signs, they indicate some degree of malignancy.  With pigments and Red Radials nearby, tumors tend to form.  A Root Transversal (also “large fork transversal”) shows usually benign tumors, cysts, and deformations.  These are usually seen in the ovaries / testes area.

Tulip Lacuna - is a topostabile brain area sign often attached to the Wreath and may be open or closed.  It indicates a tendency to weakness, degenerative processes, and possible malignancy, and implying negative influence on other organs / tissues.  Headaches frequently accompany this sign.  A CT scan may be needed, as tumors can more easily develop with this sign. 
Under-Acid Stomach - is a sign shown by a grayish appearance in a clearly demarked stomach ring.  In this case, the stomach tends to be low in digestive secretions or general digestive ability.  More chewing is needed, and in some cases, digestive aids may be appropriate.
Uric Acid Syndrome - (see “HyperAcid / HyperAcid Syndrome”). 
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We hope this index of terminology would be useful to iridologists and Iridology students in their study in this facinating subject.
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Rarefaction - refers to an area in the body of inherently or otherwise weaker tissue where toxins may more easily accumulate.  It is seen as separation(s) in the iris fibers where fibers would otherwise be more closely knit.  The darker the area within, the more profound or chronic the pathology.  

Reaction Field - is the term given to a local area of intense activity, either acute, sub-acute, chronic or degenerative.  It is clearly differentiated or demarked from surrounding tissues by its much brighter or much darker coloring or otherwise more remarkable signs. 

Red Radial - is a term referring to a red, raised (above the surrounding iris field) iris fiber, indicating increased vascular irritation in the local area.

Red Transversal - is a term referring to a red iris fiber that appears at an angle other than radiating in the normal direction-i.e. directly outward from the hypothetical center of the pupil (see “Transversal”).  A Red Transversal (as opposed to a white one) shows a more serious condition, high congestion and obstruction, important vascular involvement, and at least potential malignancy.

Region / Regions - is a term in Iridology topography referring to a group of Areas or an extended Area.  E.g., the brain Region, or the lung Region.  The brain Region includes only brain Areas (e.g., frontal, parietal, temporal), which involves the brain and related tissue, essentially.  The lung Region includes the lungs, bronchials, bronchus, pulmonary, and even the heart Areas. 

Rim - (formerly “Ciliary Zone Edge”, “Ciliary Border”, etc.) is an Iridology Topography term referring to the outside perimeter of the iris.  In some sense, it is the iris/sclera interface.  Some Iridologists refer to this area as being the outer border of Zone 6, and some say the outer border of Zone 7.  In any case, it represents the outer border of the Zone encompassing the skin Area (including underlying fascia), most of the Exocrine system, most of the Lymphatic system, and the Peripheral Nervous system (PNS).  Early indications in the study of Iris-6 suggest that most of what we can see of the causal body of man is visible in this area. 

Roof Tile Lacuna - (also called “Stair Step Lacuna”), this is a topostabile sign indicating a (at least potentially) serious condition, possibly even a malignant neoplasm.  Look for other signs of neoplasm environments, especially in the sclera.

Root Transversal - (also “large fork transversal” and see “Transversal” for a description of a basic Transversal), this sign shows generally benign tumors, cysts, and deformations.  These are usually seen in the gonad areas. 
Sclerology - def., “Scler” = hard, “ology” = study of; anatomically, the tough white outer coat of the eyeball, covering the entire surface of the eye.  Posteriorly, the sclera is an outgrowth of the optic nerve.  The posterior part, 5/6ths of the total area, is thick, white, and opaque.  The remaining 1/6th anterior portion becomes transparent, and referred to as the cornea.  Scientifically and as an art in practice, Sclerology may be defined as a means of evaluating health conditions, including pathology, via the markings and colorings in the whites of the eyes. We have seen that the most obvious markings are (1) the red lines, and (2) the general coloring.  These certainly show data on physical pathology.  However, emotional qualities are also available in certain ways. 

Scurf Rim / Scurf Rim Syndrome - is a term referring to a darkened area on the iris Rim, and also to a Syndrome implied by this sign.  It shows a tendency to certain skin disorders and exocrine gland dysfunction.

Second Major Zone - this is the Ciliary Zone, made up of the Zones outside the Wreath: Zone 3 (Nutrient transfer), Zone 4 (Vascular and Endocrine), Zone 5 (Musculo-Skeletal), Zone 6 (Defensive / Lymphatic), and Zone 7 (Skin, Exocrine, and PNS Nerve Endings).  Many other organs and systems are found within these zones.  The names noted here are arbitrary, and only for basic identification convenience.

Sector - is a term in Iridology topography referring to an arbitrary wedge-shaped or pie-shaped portion of the iris.  E.g., we can say that there is a posterior head Sector, and an anterior head Sector, a chest Sector, and a lower back Sector (etc.).  Some Iridology texts have used the term “sector” to refer to what is actually an organ Area, thus confusing these terms. 

Sectoral Photography / Imaging - are terms referring to taking images of specific portions of the iris.  Higher magnification is usually used in this case in order to more closely examine minute structures and signs.  

Sectoral Heterochromia sign / Syndrome - are terms referring to a circumstance that may be genetic, congenital, or developed, and is usually seen in one eye only.  The sign usually appears as a large, most often clearly and evenly demarked color area-e. g., brown in a blue eye.  This sign can result from a mother’s street/OTC/prescribed pharmaceutical drug use/abuse during pregnancy.  The Syndrome symptoms are varied.  Inherited cases may include possible psychosis, depression, and other psychosomatic problems.  When pre-natal drugs are involved in this sign, the result is Endocrine system disturbances at the level of the pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, or any combination of these.  The drug abuse could also involve the Gas Transfer system, with resulting hypoxia, leading to various Respiratory and/or skin problems.  When developed (after birth), possibilities involve spinal nerve-related problems from spinal cord trauma. 

Shoe Lacuna - is a sign appearing as a shoe-print showing the heel and ball of a foot (or shoe).  It describes a potentially severe condition in the relationship between the kidneys and the heart. 

Silver Threads - (see “Threads”). 

Smaller Circular Zone(s) - (see “Zones”) is a topographical reference to one or more of the Zones within the two larger divisions of Zones (which are the Pupil Zone, and the Ciliary Zone). 

Soft Markers - is a short term for such as pigment spots and washes, color shading, Darkness, Radials, Transversals, and the rest of the more transient iris markers.  

Stair Step Lacuna - (See “Roof Tile Lacuna”).

Stomach and Intestinal Zone - (see “NutriZone”).

Stomach-Beyond-Wreath - is a term referring to the stomach circle (normally, the Z1 demarcation), a rather evenly described circle, showing beyond the Wreath.  It may be white or gray.  It describes an inherited tendency to (1) dysfunctional acid producing ability (hyperacid if whitish or bright, hypoacid if darker or grayish), (2) weak and vulnerable mucosa and musculature, (3), tendency to inflammatory reactions, and (4) a special vulnerability to stomach-favoring parasites (e.g., H. Pylori).

Stomach Zone - is a term referring to the first Minor Zone (Z1) in Iris-1 topography.  It is the first circle enclosing Iris-1 information outside the Pupil Border and extending approximately halfway to the Wreath.  Information within this circle (the Stomach Zone, or Z1) pertains essentially to the stomach and related digestive functions.  Stomach data, however, may also be found extending beyond the Wreath in some areas. 

Straight-Beak Lacuna - (see “Beak Lacuna).

Structure - is a term with a number of meanings, depending on which branch of Iridology being considered.  In Physical Iridology, Toni Miller described six basic types of structure, referring to the bass relief of the iris, and particularly involving the shapes of the NutriZone.  In Personality Iridology, it refers to how a person learns and gestures, as seen by certain iris markings and colorings.  There are four basic Structures: Streams, Jewels, Flowers, and Shakers, and fully eight permutations of these basic four (e.g., “Stream-Jewel”, “Shaker-Flower”, etc. 

Syndrome - (formerly “disposition”, and “sub-type”) is a term referring to a set of symptoms occurring together, a symptom complex, or the sum of signs of any morbid state, described by an iris / sclera sign or sign combination.

Systemic Fungi / Syndrome -is shown by (1) a generally darkened and somewhat grainy NutriZone, (2) a jagged and atonic Wreath, (3) Sun Radials (more than 80% of the time), and (4) a thickening whitish opacity in the upper Quadrants (to the degree of infestation).  Sclera signs include the typical Labyrinth configuration (P5), and the thick red Yeast Band (P6) seen at the lower medial edges of the lower Quadrants.  The implication is Candidiasis, but other fungi are often involved.
Vascularized Radial - (see “Red Radial”). 
Wedges - are small black or otherwise very dark signs with their tops always pointing outward.  They tend to appear (1) on the Pupil Border, and sometimes (2) on the Wreath.  They indicate very important compromise of vascular integrity in whatever local areas found.

White Flakes - (see “Tofi”). 

White Radial - (also “pressure”, “bright”, “irritative”, “irritation”, and “sinuous”) is a term referring to one or several bright iris fibers, usually thickened, seen singly or placed together in groups of two or more.  They will be either white, if in Blue or the lighter Hazel eyes, or pale yellow if in the darker Hazel or Brown eyes.  They indicate either acute vascular irritation (in such case raised above the surrounding iris stroma), or chronic congestion (duller white/pale yellow, not raised) wherever seen.

Wreath - Modern term used for the iris wreath, the roughly rounded object located some 2/3rds out from the pupil on the surface of the iris.  Fundamentally, the Wreath represents the autonomic nervous system, but a great deal more is shown by this structure.   The presence or absence, size and shape, height and width, placement with regard to the pupil and iris Rim, and other qualities of the Wreath offer a wealth of information about the person.  Many terms have been used to identify the Wreath, including “colarette”, “Autonomic Nerve Wreath”, “Nerve Wreath”, “ANS”, and so on.   

Wreath Characteristics -refers to the fact that the iris Wreath indicates pathology in the Nutritive system, In nervous system and life events, or so-called “Time Risk”. In Nutritive system qualities include Wreath placement, quality, and shape in identifying system activity patterns and reactive dispositions. 

Wreath Placement - considers the various qualities of the iris Wreath in terms of its location relative to the pupil (balanced, constricted, etc.). 

Wreath Quality - refers to the iris Wreath’s relative thickness (thin and wispy, moderate, or thick).  Moderate thickness generally means a tendency to satisfactory bowel motility.

Wreath Shape -refers to the iris Wreath’s continuity and outline.  Uniform Wreaths are more rounded, mostly equidistant from the iris Rim, and imply a tendency to good /bowel waste processing and elimination. 
Wreath Zone - (see “NutriZone”). 
Zone / Zones - (also Z1, Z2, Z3, etc.) are a term referring to the topography of the iris as laid out in a series of concentric circles as part of a grid.  Iridology theorists generally describe two major Zones and six or seven minor ones.  The two so-called major Zones are usually referred to as (1) the NutriZone (formerly “nutritive zone”, and “pupillary zone”), and (2) the Ciliary Zone.  Starting at the pupil border and radiating outward toward the iris Rim, the otherwise so-called minor Zones include (1) the Stomach Zone, (2) the Bowel Zone, (3) the ANS / Vascular / Endocrine Zone, (4) the Muscular Zone, (5) the Structural Zone, and (6) and (7) the Lymphatic / Skin / Exocrine / Peripheral Nervous system Zone(s).    
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